- Empower 2
- Empower 3
- Breeze 2
Vo is the exclusion volume of the set of columns in a GPCV system. Vt is the total retention volume of the set of columns in a GPCV system. You can use both Vo and Vt to extend the valid range of a calibration curve.
As mentioned above, both Vo and Vt can be used to extend the range of a calibration curve. For this reason, they should be measured, and those values used. Artificially creating Vo or Vt values can cause a calibration curve to lose accuracy.